I feel that we have a good foundation with the crystal cells. I feel as if I need to move towards cells that are equal to AA batteries. I think I can make crystal cells that are the shape of the AA batteries. The best way to compete with AA batteries is to make my crystal cell cheaper and last longer. Batteries are fucking expensive and I think i can make a crystal cell the size of a AA but the power will be much lower but last longer.
Salt substitute contains: Potassium chloride, fumaric acid, tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate.
Epsom salt contains: MgSO4 * 7H2O
----How to make cheap “paper crystal cell”
Take salt substitute and Epsom salt and mix it both into distilled water, make water heavily saturated with both salts.
Take paper and on one side draw a heavy two inch thick stripe with your graphite pencil. The graphite is carbon and will act like a electrode. Put masking tape over the top of graphite, this is to protect the top from getting the electrolyte on it. Now take the whole paper and spray it down with the salt subtitute and Espom salt mix. Allow to dry. Spray another mix down for good measure, be sure to let it all dry for 12 hours. Then take aluminum foil and place it on the other side of paper, making sure the paper is fully dried, and roll it all up with the carbon on the outside. You may need to make a electrode that sticks out of aluminum foil so you can make a connection when its all rolled up. And there you have, a cheap easy to make Paper crystal cell. This cell doesn't need water to run only needs water to make the two crystals into one which is conductive and this really does work.
Potassium and sodium are very similar. For a long time they were thought to be the same thing.
The glue cell seems to reject water. Either the cell is too full of water and it rejects the excess or the cell fully rejects the water
Voltage on cup with tap water, magnesium and copper electrodes = 1.750 but keeps going up.
adding salt = 1.500
removing salt and getting new tap water and then adding salt substitute and Epsom salt = 1.600 volts
Odd, i was expecting the opposite, i was thinking the table salt would have given more voltage.
The average voltage on the glue cell with epsom salt and salt substitute is around 1.400 volts, so its 200mV less when in a glue cell. The salt and glue cell goes down below 300mV. So what makes the epsom salt and salt substitute have a higher glue cell voltage? The table salt doesn't have have water in the molecule like the Epsom salt has. But the water is on the inside of the crystal, right? But we have test to show that the electrons flow on the skin of the glue cell crystal. Does a glue cell still work when all water is removed? heating the cell up in the oven will show if the cell still works with no water.
Before we close up shop and declare this galvanic I have some very important factoids that must be considered. First off putting the glue cell with salt substitute and Epsom's salt into the oven at 400 degrees and waiting till all water bubbles stop popping the cell still produced 1.500 volts on its skin. heating it up in the oven and removing the water is not the most important discovery at all. Many people will jump to the idea that the glue has water and Epsom salt contains water in it so making a glue cell with Epsom's salt only should make a good cell right? Wrong, barely any voltage comes from that type of cell. So even though the glue has water and Epsom salt has water in it does not mean your guarantee a working cell. A cell that only is glue and Epsom salt makes a crappy cell, a glue cell with salt substitute only makes a better cell but not as good as the cell when the two salts are combined. The salt substitute contains the least amount of water of all, but we only use it for it the potassium chloride and that contains no water at all. The fact that the two things of glue and Epsom salt which contains a lot of water would make one think that it would make a great cell due to all the water but in-fact when the cell dries out its a shitty cell which gives little to no voltage. So we can rule out the idea of galvanic due to the water not playing a role.
Here is some voltage readings on glue cells
Glue and Epsom salt only (copper and aluminum wire) 30mV
Glue and Salt substitute only (copper and aluminum wire) 300mV
Glue, salt substitute and Epsom salt (copper and aluminum) 500+mV
Glue, salt substitute and Epsom salt (copper and magnesium) 1.400+Volts
Something more is going on here than galvanic.
The cell crystal glue cell that’s been shorted out for over 2 months now is starting to show oxidation on the copper where it meets the glue. Oddly enough the magnesium shows no corrosion at all, in a galvanic process it would show corrosion and start to flake off. The copper could be naturally acting to the environment but its odd that it started at the glue part of the metal. It could be that when making the cell that area was wet and it started out to making a oxide layer there first and when it was dry it continued due to the moist air. The glue crystal cell still works even when painted so no water can get in. But the cell that's been shorted out seems to be loosing power. It use to be when I removed the short from the cell It would read instantly over 600mV but now it reads 500mV and then goes up.
I’ve also hooked the crystal glue cell up to a LED blocking oscillator and it ran it for 4 days and drop to 500mV and the LED stopped blinking. Letting it sit for 30 minutes not connected brings it back to over 1.400 volts and hooking it back up to the load drops it to .707mV. Leaving it overnight unconnected brings it back to .774mV when the load is connected back up and it also is at above 1.400v when left not connected to anything. So the voltage returns back to normal but the amps or power doesn't go back all the way. I’ve never seen a AA battery jump back to its original voltage after giving it a load so the Crystal cell is something special but for it not to fully jump back in amps gets me worried a little.
I have scaled up the crystal glue cell to something bigger. I hoping bigger is better.
In looking up a galvanic cell they mention something that is called a “salt bridge”. You have two metals each in their own container but you need something that connects them but doesn't allow the two electrolyte to mix and thus you use a salt bridge. The salt bridge allows the electrons to flow without allowing the water mixes to combine, thus the salt bridge is conductive medium. And what is salt bridges made of? Potassium chloride, which of course in the salt substitute. So the reason why the crystal glue cell works is that Potassium chloride is working like a conductive medium for electrons to flow.
So it safe to say that the potassium chloride is the thing that allows the electrons to flow in the cell but it does not answer all the questions. The cell that’s being shorted out only shows oxide on the copper, the magnesium should show redox where it looses or breaks down but it doesn't. Plus the cell is sealed off in glue thus protecting it from expose to the air. A normal battery would loose its voltage when a load is given to it, but this cell will recharge its voltage back to its starting voltage but current barely comes back to original voltage.
These crystal glue cells are not like normal batteries. Even the “dry cells” are not like the crystal battery. AA batteries are called “dry cells” but this is a lie as they contain a moist electrolyte. My crystal glue cell once dry contains no water even if you leave out Epsom salt.
Its like a circle, energy flows from the zinc to the acid, then acid to copper, and then copper to wire, wire to zinc, like a circle.
We don’t generate electricity, its already there, we merely tell it where to go. Think of the battery as a pump, it pumps electrons around and you can get work from this.
how or why do humans generate electricity?
Its the water or acid that liberates the electron from the first metal where it travels from the first metal to the other though the liquid thus we have electricity. But what if we don’t have a liquid?
To find how much water is in Elmer’s glue I took paper that weight 5 grams and added 5 grams of Elmer’s glue. I let it dry for a few days and weigh it again and the total weight when the glue was wet including paper was 10 grams now they weigh 7 grams. That means the glue lost 3 grams of water thus leaving 2 grams behind.
I re made many of the cells, form the basic glue cell and then added things to test what salts or crystals work best. All these cells were made on 10-17-11
Elmer’s glue only cell when wet makes a water battery but slowly the cell looses its voltage. May take a week or more to the Elmer's glue only cell to loose most of its voltage. This cell was created on 10-17-11 and today 10-19-11 is now at .900 volts. I’ve made this cell before and it will fall down to around 100mV. This test is a great way to found out how long it takes a glue cell to fully dry.
Elmer’s glue and Epsom salt cell would seem like the perfect cell since both Elmer’s glue contains water and Epsom salt also contains water and easily absorbs water too. The fact is that this make a horrible cell, the Elmer’s glue only cell is better than this one. This cell is now 129mV. This cell helps to prove that the Crystal glue battery doesn't use water to get power, if it did use water than this would be the best cell to use but its not.
Elmer’s glue and Salt substitute makes a okay cell with 1.061 volts but it seems to slowly going down today on 10-19-11. I was expecting this cell to do better as it contains potassium chloride which is used a salt bridge in galvanic cells. Its funny how salt substitute only cell and Epsom salt only cells make poor cells by themselves but combine them and it makes the best cell so far.
Elmer’s glue, salt substitute, and Epsom salt makes the best cell with over 1.400volts. Salt substitute and Epsom salt by themselves in the glue make not so great cells but combine them in the glue and let them dry and they make the best damn cells. So far all i know is that the water in Elmer’s glue allows the two salts to mix into something that makes a good battery and the glue keeps corrosion away. This cell doesn't run on water and thus its amazing little cell.
Elmer’s glue, Alum, and Salt substitute is a cell i’m going to be watching. on 10-19-11 this cell is at 1.420 volts. This cell is up there with the Epsom salt and salt substitute cell. Plus this cell dries much thinner due to the lack of the fat Epsom salt crystals. I also like the idea of not having Epsom salt due to it containing water and wanting to absorb water easily. The alum is McCormick alum. As i think about it this cell is a combine of the glue cell and stove top cell. The stove top cell was borax on bottom salt substitute and alum on top, the reason for this cell working had to do with the alum and salt substitute. So of course the salt substitute and Alum glue cell would work, and the good news is that the stove top cell has a good run time on it.
As for my cells the big crystal glue cell is still doing very well. Its still powers a LCD clock like its nothing. the only bad thing about these types of cells is the amps, they’re not enough. Its great that voltage will always recharge itself but with little amps i can do little work. I need a way to get amps up without affecting the cells negatively.
Its simple, water corrodes metals. Keep water away and the cells will last longer. Putting oxide layer on any metal won’t stop the corrosion it will only slow it down. If a oxide layer would stop corrosion than aluminum would never corrode due to aluminum having a constant oxide layer on it when its exposed to air. The corrosion doesn't come from two dissimilar metals, its the water that does the corroding. Just stick aluminum foil in distilled water and leave it, after awhile the aluminum foil will have holes in it due to it corroding away. So the logic here is simple, if your cells need water to run than it will corrode because its a water battery.
What everyone’s goal should be is to find a way to have a galvanic battery that doesn't use water. If the galvanic battery doesn't use water than it won’t corrode and if won’t corrode than the cell can output voltage for a long time.