Wednesday, September 24, 2014
Sunday, September 14, 2014
I feel that we have a good foundation with the crystal cells. I feel as if I need to move towards cells that are equal to AA batteries. I think I can make crystal cells that are the shape of the AA batteries. The best way to compete with AA batteries is to make my crystal cell cheaper and last longer. Batteries are fucking expensive and I think i can make a crystal cell the size of a AA but the power will be much lower but last longer.
Salt substitute contains: Potassium chloride, fumaric acid, tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate.
Epsom salt contains: MgSO4 * 7H2O
----How to make cheap “paper crystal cell”
Take salt substitute and Epsom salt and mix it both into distilled water, make water heavily saturated with both salts.
Take paper and on one side draw a heavy two inch thick stripe with your graphite pencil. The graphite is carbon and will act like a electrode. Put masking tape over the top of graphite, this is to protect the top from getting the electrolyte on it. Now take the whole paper and spray it down with the salt subtitute and Espom salt mix. Allow to dry. Spray another mix down for good measure, be sure to let it all dry for 12 hours. Then take aluminum foil and place it on the other side of paper, making sure the paper is fully dried, and roll it all up with the carbon on the outside. You may need to make a electrode that sticks out of aluminum foil so you can make a connection when its all rolled up. And there you have, a cheap easy to make Paper crystal cell. This cell doesn't need water to run only needs water to make the two crystals into one which is conductive and this really does work.
Potassium and sodium are very similar. For a long time they were thought to be the same thing.
The glue cell seems to reject water. Either the cell is too full of water and it rejects the excess or the cell fully rejects the water
Voltage on cup with tap water, magnesium and copper electrodes = 1.750 but keeps going up.
adding salt = 1.500
removing salt and getting new tap water and then adding salt substitute and Epsom salt = 1.600 volts
Odd, i was expecting the opposite, i was thinking the table salt would have given more voltage.
The average voltage on the glue cell with epsom salt and salt substitute is around 1.400 volts, so its 200mV less when in a glue cell. The salt and glue cell goes down below 300mV. So what makes the epsom salt and salt substitute have a higher glue cell voltage? The table salt doesn't have have water in the molecule like the Epsom salt has. But the water is on the inside of the crystal, right? But we have test to show that the electrons flow on the skin of the glue cell crystal. Does a glue cell still work when all water is removed? heating the cell up in the oven will show if the cell still works with no water.
Before we close up shop and declare this galvanic I have some very important factoids that must be considered. First off putting the glue cell with salt substitute and Epsom's salt into the oven at 400 degrees and waiting till all water bubbles stop popping the cell still produced 1.500 volts on its skin. heating it up in the oven and removing the water is not the most important discovery at all. Many people will jump to the idea that the glue has water and Epsom salt contains water in it so making a glue cell with Epsom's salt only should make a good cell right? Wrong, barely any voltage comes from that type of cell. So even though the glue has water and Epsom salt has water in it does not mean your guarantee a working cell. A cell that only is glue and Epsom salt makes a crappy cell, a glue cell with salt substitute only makes a better cell but not as good as the cell when the two salts are combined. The salt substitute contains the least amount of water of all, but we only use it for it the potassium chloride and that contains no water at all. The fact that the two things of glue and Epsom salt which contains a lot of water would make one think that it would make a great cell due to all the water but in-fact when the cell dries out its a shitty cell which gives little to no voltage. So we can rule out the idea of galvanic due to the water not playing a role.
Here is some voltage readings on glue cells
Glue and Epsom salt only (copper and aluminum wire) 30mV
Glue and Salt substitute only (copper and aluminum wire) 300mV
Glue, salt substitute and Epsom salt (copper and aluminum) 500+mV
Glue, salt substitute and Epsom salt (copper and magnesium) 1.400+Volts
Something more is going on here than galvanic.
The cell crystal glue cell that’s been shorted out for over 2 months now is starting to show oxidation on the copper where it meets the glue. Oddly enough the magnesium shows no corrosion at all, in a galvanic process it would show corrosion and start to flake off. The copper could be naturally acting to the environment but its odd that it started at the glue part of the metal. It could be that when making the cell that area was wet and it started out to making a oxide layer there first and when it was dry it continued due to the moist air. The glue crystal cell still works even when painted so no water can get in. But the cell that's been shorted out seems to be loosing power. It use to be when I removed the short from the cell It would read instantly over 600mV but now it reads 500mV and then goes up.
I’ve also hooked the crystal glue cell up to a LED blocking oscillator and it ran it for 4 days and drop to 500mV and the LED stopped blinking. Letting it sit for 30 minutes not connected brings it back to over 1.400 volts and hooking it back up to the load drops it to .707mV. Leaving it overnight unconnected brings it back to .774mV when the load is connected back up and it also is at above 1.400v when left not connected to anything. So the voltage returns back to normal but the amps or power doesn't go back all the way. I’ve never seen a AA battery jump back to its original voltage after giving it a load so the Crystal cell is something special but for it not to fully jump back in amps gets me worried a little.
I have scaled up the crystal glue cell to something bigger. I hoping bigger is better.
In looking up a galvanic cell they mention something that is called a “salt bridge”. You have two metals each in their own container but you need something that connects them but doesn't allow the two electrolyte to mix and thus you use a salt bridge. The salt bridge allows the electrons to flow without allowing the water mixes to combine, thus the salt bridge is conductive medium. And what is salt bridges made of? Potassium chloride, which of course in the salt substitute. So the reason why the crystal glue cell works is that Potassium chloride is working like a conductive medium for electrons to flow.
So it safe to say that the potassium chloride is the thing that allows the electrons to flow in the cell but it does not answer all the questions. The cell that’s being shorted out only shows oxide on the copper, the magnesium should show redox where it looses or breaks down but it doesn't. Plus the cell is sealed off in glue thus protecting it from expose to the air. A normal battery would loose its voltage when a load is given to it, but this cell will recharge its voltage back to its starting voltage but current barely comes back to original voltage.
These crystal glue cells are not like normal batteries. Even the “dry cells” are not like the crystal battery. AA batteries are called “dry cells” but this is a lie as they contain a moist electrolyte. My crystal glue cell once dry contains no water even if you leave out Epsom salt.
Its like a circle, energy flows from the zinc to the acid, then acid to copper, and then copper to wire, wire to zinc, like a circle.
We don’t generate electricity, its already there, we merely tell it where to go. Think of the battery as a pump, it pumps electrons around and you can get work from this.
how or why do humans generate electricity?
Its the water or acid that liberates the electron from the first metal where it travels from the first metal to the other though the liquid thus we have electricity. But what if we don’t have a liquid?
To find how much water is in Elmer’s glue I took paper that weight 5 grams and added 5 grams of Elmer’s glue. I let it dry for a few days and weigh it again and the total weight when the glue was wet including paper was 10 grams now they weigh 7 grams. That means the glue lost 3 grams of water thus leaving 2 grams behind.
I re made many of the cells, form the basic glue cell and then added things to test what salts or crystals work best. All these cells were made on 10-17-11
Elmer’s glue only cell when wet makes a water battery but slowly the cell looses its voltage. May take a week or more to the Elmer's glue only cell to loose most of its voltage. This cell was created on 10-17-11 and today 10-19-11 is now at .900 volts. I’ve made this cell before and it will fall down to around 100mV. This test is a great way to found out how long it takes a glue cell to fully dry.
Elmer’s glue and Epsom salt cell would seem like the perfect cell since both Elmer’s glue contains water and Epsom salt also contains water and easily absorbs water too. The fact is that this make a horrible cell, the Elmer’s glue only cell is better than this one. This cell is now 129mV. This cell helps to prove that the Crystal glue battery doesn't use water to get power, if it did use water than this would be the best cell to use but its not.
Elmer’s glue and Salt substitute makes a okay cell with 1.061 volts but it seems to slowly going down today on 10-19-11. I was expecting this cell to do better as it contains potassium chloride which is used a salt bridge in galvanic cells. Its funny how salt substitute only cell and Epsom salt only cells make poor cells by themselves but combine them and it makes the best cell so far.
Elmer’s glue, salt substitute, and Epsom salt makes the best cell with over 1.400volts. Salt substitute and Epsom salt by themselves in the glue make not so great cells but combine them in the glue and let them dry and they make the best damn cells. So far all i know is that the water in Elmer’s glue allows the two salts to mix into something that makes a good battery and the glue keeps corrosion away. This cell doesn't run on water and thus its amazing little cell.
Elmer’s glue, Alum, and Salt substitute is a cell i’m going to be watching. on 10-19-11 this cell is at 1.420 volts. This cell is up there with the Epsom salt and salt substitute cell. Plus this cell dries much thinner due to the lack of the fat Epsom salt crystals. I also like the idea of not having Epsom salt due to it containing water and wanting to absorb water easily. The alum is McCormick alum. As i think about it this cell is a combine of the glue cell and stove top cell. The stove top cell was borax on bottom salt substitute and alum on top, the reason for this cell working had to do with the alum and salt substitute. So of course the salt substitute and Alum glue cell would work, and the good news is that the stove top cell has a good run time on it.
As for my cells the big crystal glue cell is still doing very well. Its still powers a LCD clock like its nothing. the only bad thing about these types of cells is the amps, they’re not enough. Its great that voltage will always recharge itself but with little amps i can do little work. I need a way to get amps up without affecting the cells negatively.
Its simple, water corrodes metals. Keep water away and the cells will last longer. Putting oxide layer on any metal won’t stop the corrosion it will only slow it down. If a oxide layer would stop corrosion than aluminum would never corrode due to aluminum having a constant oxide layer on it when its exposed to air. The corrosion doesn't come from two dissimilar metals, its the water that does the corroding. Just stick aluminum foil in distilled water and leave it, after awhile the aluminum foil will have holes in it due to it corroding away. So the logic here is simple, if your cells need water to run than it will corrode because its a water battery.
What everyone’s goal should be is to find a way to have a galvanic battery that doesn't use water. If the galvanic battery doesn't use water than it won’t corrode and if won’t corrode than the cell can output voltage for a long time.
Saturday, September 13, 2014
Well using the pipe cleaners and the two electrodes did not work as the pipe cleaners had metal in them that shorted the two electrodes out. So I thought I could use hot glue to separate them from the metal, so I wrapped the aluminum around the pipe cleaner and put put hot glue on pipe cleaner to protect it from the copper so the metals won't touch. One thing I forgot was that hot glue is activated by things that are hot and the glue went soft and dropped the copper. Now i'm back at using string again and hoping that it will work this time. I think the crystals grow better in a glass jar, it could be that the glass is a crystal too or something?
The string idea works just fine and I was able to grow a control cell which was a borax crystal with aluminum and copper electrodes. This control was to prove a point that this could be done, grow a crystal around two electrodes. This control cell did not last long voltage wise and now is under 200mV anything at that voltage is not worth it. But the key to a good crystal or any crystal is a polycrystalline structure, which means crystal inside of crystals.
I was able to make a polycrystalline literal crystal battery with borax and doped with salt substitute and Epsom salt. The doping of other crystals is what makes a polycrystalline crystal cell. This cell is amazing, unlike the control cell this cell is still holding its original voltage. This cell is much more clear than the control but you would expect the opposite due to doping don’t you think? But the biggest thing to note about this cell is its voltage. The voltage bounces around, like it could be at 520mV then it could be at 528mV and then go to 525mV. Even with a resistor load the voltage jumps around but the key thing is that the voltage never goes down. You see a galvanic cell would hold steady voltage and have linear decline of voltage but this crystal cell bounces around in voltage but in general doesn't go down. I make this cell using 4 cups of hot water 12 tablespoons of borax (20 mule team brand) put in a GLASS MASON JAR and dope it all with salt substitute and Epsom salt. Wrap the electrodes with string and let them sit in jar over night or even longer but don’t mess with it for a long time.
A galvanic cell works due to ion to ion transfer. The ions carry the electron from one electrode to the other. the water holds the ions, pure water doesn't conduct electricity unless it has ions (minerals) in it. When you freeze water with the electrodes in it you slow down the ion flow, that's why it produces little voltage when water is in its crystal (frozen) form. When you heat up the water the ions have more energy and room to move. The more you heat it the more the ions can move thus more voltage.
If you slow down that movement it becomes a solid. As a solid it can't transfer ions as easy. So we can state that when water or a crystal is a solid it CAN'T transfer electrons as easy. In order to transmit electrons you need a path inside of the solid.
This is where the polycrystalline idea comes in to play, these make the pathways for the electrons. The polycrystalline allows crystals inside of crystals so a matrix of crystals are touching or almost touching. The crystal that are not touching is the reason why a crystal cell's voltages are always lower than a galvanic cells using the same electrodes. The almost touching cells act like spark gaps or resistors that lowers the voltage to below what it would be in the equivalent galvanic cell. The almost touching crystals could also stimulate the Casimir effect due to their close spacing, but I can't be 100% on that.
Now the question is if this electron flow in a crystal cell the same as the in a galvanic cell? Will the crystal cell break down just like a galvanic cell does? So far my crystal cells are still going even with a dead short and show no corrosion, so does mean we have a electron flow in a crystal that is non destructive? A dipole that won't get destroyed? Only time will answer that question.
So even if these cell ended up being glavanic we can’t also assume that there voltage is all coming from the galvanic’s. When using the same metals such as aluminum you still get some voltage. But others will say the reason for the voltage is due to one plate being bigger but this is not the case. Its were the plate is in the “water” or something that makes the difference and the metal itself. Using a whole bath tub with a 4 foot roll of aluminum still gave low or normal voltage, no increase.
Back when I use to play with water batteries I learn how to make a SAME METAL water using only aluminum and DISTILLED WATER. From all the literature I found I learn you can’t have any voltage from using the exact same metals in water due to no attraction as both metals have the exact same electrons so thus no electrons will flow. There was to a way to use the same metals but you need them to be in different electrolytes as the electrolytes gave was gave the push for electrons to flow. But What I as working with was the same metals in the same electrolytes which was distilled water so thus I should not get any voltage. Well I did get voltage and the ones that I perfected I was able to get 600mV from the same metals in the same distilled water electrolyte. Many people proposed the reason for the voltage was due to the different size plates and at first I believed them until I did some research. If one plate being bigger than the other was true than having a 4 foot long aluminum sheet with a 1 inch long aluminum sheet (same metal) in water would have given a lot of power but instead gave me a lower power than the smaller ones. So plate size difference was not the reason for the voltage.
What I did find was it was not the plates but the electrolyte (water) that was the key to getting more voltage. I also found that different shapes gave good results too and matching the plates with other plates helped out to. I also learned that water was a crystal of sorts. A cup of water would grow a layer of crystals on the top where it was exposed to air. So sticking one aluminum wire into it the water and having the other barely touching the water gave the best voltages.
I also found that this worked well as a capacitor, resistor, transistor, and many other parts. I deemed the golden component.
What is water? Every living thing needs water. Water forms crystal shapes in its molecule form and those crystal start showing when you freeze it. Water doesn't follow all the other physical laws. 70% of our body is water. Any animal will always choose water from a spring due to its minerals. Without good water the red blood cells loose their electrical charge. Water produces hexagonal crystals, this crystal could be the reason why most crystals have water in them. Water is a universal solvent, it made the grand canyon and carves rocks in mountains. 70% of the earth is covered with water. Water is diamagnetic. Pure water is at a PH of 7, which is not acidic or a base.
One of the original glue crystal cells (salt substitute, Elmer's glue, Epsom salt, copper and magnesium electrodes) has been shorted out since 8-12-11 and today is 9-18-11. If this was a normal galvanic cell it would dead now. I removed the short form the cell and right away I was at 700mV and going up. The original voltage on the cell was 1.4 volts and the cell wants to climb back up to that voltage. Any other battery would be dead now but not the glue cell. The glue does look like it has shrunk and is much harder now than ever before. Also no corrosion is showing, this cell is left in the open hanging on a wall. If a dead short for over month is not impressive than I’ll go for a year and see what happens. I do think its time to go bigger.
--- Maybe our understanding of the galvanic process is all wrong. It could very well be that the galvanic process is not the reason why metals corrode. Water is understood to be the universal solvent, it so strong it created the grand canyon. It might be that the water is what corrodes the metals and not the galvanic process. The galvanic’s are creating the dipole of unlimited energy so long as the metals are not exposed to water which corrodes it. This could be the reason why the crystal cell don’t show corrosion when dried and shorted out. Galvanic’s may not cause corrosion but it can assist in it when placed in a wet environment. Pure water won’t conduct electricity but to obtain pure water is complex and you’ll never get all the ions out from it. So pure water won’t corrode metals either but pure water doesn't exist in everyday life so water contains ions and its these ions (minerals, etc.) that corrode the metal or other objects by dissolving them away. When Electricity is applied as from the Galvanic process the Ions get extra energy and that energy is what adds to the corrosion of metals. So we could say that Galvanic is misunderstood and its the water with the ions that really kills the cells.
By what claim do I say this? How I see the galvanic process is simple, Two dissimilar metals in a electrolyte. From my testing when the electrolyte is wet (contains water with ions) it will “dissolve” the metals. When the electrolyte is dry (crystal) the metals don’t dissolve or corrode away due to the fact water is not touching it. For centuries we only explored the wet electrolyte, even what industries calls “dry” cells still contains moisture and so we always contributed galvanics to be the reason why batteries die because the galvanics was corroding it away. Its been the water that has been doing all the corroding.
I figured I could make a simple rock battery. Just take some water and mix some salt substitute and Epsom salt (they mix to make the magic crystal) and dip some gravel rocks into the mix and allow the rocks to dry. Once dried you can poke it with aluminum and copper electrodes and get a votlage from it. This same idea of placing things in the solutions will work for other things too, like paper and maybe a quarter. For some odd reason when salt substitute and Epsom salt is mixed in water or combined they make a new crystal that allows electrons to flow when dry.
Just about any porous material such as paper, rocks, and so on I can make into a battery. Just by making a mix of salt substitute and Epsom salt in distilled water. I take this mix and place a rock or paper into the mix and take it out and let it dry. The object can now allow electrons to flow when two dissimilar metals are place on it. So I can make a rock battery, a paper battery that doesn't need water to run. I bet I could place layer of this on to glass? Or I could cut the middle man out and mix the two salts in water and then evaporate the water which will leave the new combined salt that I can up in a cup and stick the electrodes in that.
Sorry in advanced for the misspellings and grammar mistakes....
Heating Epsom Salt and Alum over a stove till they melt and then sticking the electrodes in makes a battery but not just any battery a AC battery. This battery outputs a small AC voltage when dried showing this could mean that its a true crystal battery. I've showed this video to others but all they care about is the galvanic batteries. This cell is not galvanic and it produces AC.
The Elmer's Glue, Salt substitute, and Epsom salt cells are still amazing cells. They can be shorted out for weeks and come back to their original voltage just fine and do more work. The one guy who replicated this cell has stated that he can run a joule thief pancake coil made by lidmotor off the cell for 4 hours and then let it rest for 1 hour and its able to do it again for 4 hours and so on.
I did find something out that is interesting, the Epsom salts contains water. Or better the Epsom salts also absorb water from the air very easily. Is this a bad thing? I don't know, because if water was their then the voltage would be higher on the cells but they're not they're lower. Also the water in the cell seems to be pushed out as the cell dries, the cell develops a wet spot around the glue on the paper. Also if water was in the cell a galvanic reaction would happened and shorting the cells out would make them weaker and the plates would corrode but they don't. I doing a test on the glue itself, I placed it on paper to let it dry and see if it develops a wet spot around it. If it doesn't develop a wet spot then the water has to come from the salts.
I did make a cell with only glue and salt substitute in it and the cell does work. The cell has a little less than normal voltage in it where normal would be 1.450 this cell has 1.400 in it. I did make a Glue and Epsom salt cell too, but its still wet unlike the salt substitute and glue cell which has fully dried and harden. This could mean that the Epsom salt cell is trying to push out the water it contained. What I find most interesting is that the glue and salt substitute cell even though its got less voltage it holds its voltage better as if it has more power in it. The glue and salt substitute cell is able to power the LCD clock just fine. This makes me want to build the salt substitute and glue cell and test it to see if it recharges itself like the other cells.
I took a copper tube and wrapped notebook paper around it and then wrapped the magnesium ribbon around that. I made a batch of distilled water which contain Epsom salt and salt substitute. Then dump the cell in that till it was good and wet and than sat the cell in a sealed container connected the LCD Clock. The clock is on at full power and working perfect the clock was set at 7:06PM. Its now 7:30 and its still working perfect. I know to the common person I just made a galvanic cell but from earlier testing I found that adding those two salts lowered the voltage which is the opposite of table salt and what you might expect. This test is just to see if the magnesium will corrode but from early test it might not or might really slowly corrode. Also from the Glue cells that contained those salts it should last a long time. I also know from doing this before that the cell should still provide power even when dry as I have do this before on smaller scale and the cell is fully dry and still giving voltage.
Stove Dry Crystal Cell
In search of a dry crystal cell (A crystal cell that did not need water added to it for it to work) I've found that mixing Alum, Borax, and salt substitute and cooking it made a good cell. Using copper and magnesium I have a really storng cell and connecting it to a joule theif like circuit helps to make it even better when lighting a LED.
I have found that a cell of only Alum cooked on the stove with the copper and magnesium doesn't produce the same result of the cell above. The power is much lower, so the borax and salt substitute are needed.
I think I might know a better way to make the cells. First place alum down and stick electrodes into it. Let alum cook til it boils or becomes a liquid and then once a liquid add the borax and salt substitute.
I've been the only one who made the dry cells. At first I was bashed for it as other contested that water was still in the crystal, but I prove them wrong with the simple experiment of sticking my probes in the crystal of Epsom salt and showing that even though it has water in the crystal the electrodes never touch the water thus no voltage. Then I was ignored, people still felt un easy about it but they slowly started to make it.
I'm working on my next idea, a true crystal battery or a literal crystal battery. I'm worried about sharing this one. These new cells have copper and aluminum instead of copper and magnesium because the magnesium would melt just sitting in the water. But I make ½ cup of boiling water and add 2 of ½ tablespoons of alum in the boiling water and stir. As the water cools and evaporates crystals are formed. But this process is taking forever. I think if I just dunk the electrodes which are wrapped in string so that water is absorbed and then hang it up it should speed things up a bit.
These literal crystal batteries are much harder than I expected they would be. These cells are hard to make and I think I'm doing it all wrong. As I'm learning is that the water is used to dissolve the salts and as the water evaporates the crystals start growing. So water leaving is the reason why you get crystal growth. My problem is that I'm not allowing the water to easy evaporate, I keep them in cups I need to put them in flat plates maybe with a black bottom and put it in the sun. The more spread out the water is the faster the evaporation. It also may help to have a fan lightly blow the flat plate of water water help with the evaporation.
So far I do have some crystal growth on the aluminum and copper electrodes and I have allows the cell to dry and it does produce a voltage. The voltage is around 250mV which is small but this tells me a lot. One thing it tells me is that this low voltage is not due to a galvanic reaction because a galvanic reaction would be closer to a volt. But the best news is that the cell is holding its voltage even with the meter hooked up to it, and as it is drying the voltage seems to be increasing too. Having the the crystal grow around the electrodes seems to be working great so far in the small test. Having 250mV holding steady is amazing in this small tests.
Using just a Epsom salt crystal may not work. The glue cell with just epsom salt didn't work well so I expect that growing the crystal around the electrodes might not work that well. It was when you doped the cells that it started working. Mixing Epsom salt , salt substitute, and Borax and see if one crystal can grow from that batch of three, that cell should power things.
Its been awhile since I've posted anything but I've decided to post some of my Crystal Cell Research Notes I started back in 2011. These notes are a journey for me, so take them lightly as I might have made bold claims but they were later proven wrong and other claims still hold true to this day. I hope this helps others in the journey in crystal cells and helps them better there own cells. Please enjoy!